Archiving AD Accounts with PowerShell

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Problem:

I work for a small K-12 school district. Often when teachers retire, they return as substitutes. We are also required maintain public records for seven years. For these reasons, we do not delete staff accounts immediately after their employment ends.

I had a process for archiving employees and activating old accounts, but it was time consuming. I also wanted to ensure that procedures were followed by new staff members.  A few of the steps I take when archiving an account are, setting Logon Workstation and Logon Hours, adding the account to a “Archived Users” group, removing all other groups, and, of course, disabling the account.

I knew I could automate this with PowerShell, but I am late to game and didn’t really know where to start. I have adapted scripts for my needs, but I have not done a project like this from start to finish. In addition to automating some account management, I wanted to expand some PowerShell skills.

Solution:

I was lucky enough to attend Ignite 2018 and caught Tools, tips and tricks from the SysAdmin field by my friend, Harjit (@hoorge). Towards the end of the session, around 17:20, he shows Active Directory Admin Center (ADAC) and the awesome Windows PowerShell History Viewer. For those unfamiliar with this feature, every action that you do in ADAC generates PowerShell code.

Active Directory Administrative Center

Copy and paste the code into PowerShell ISE and string each step of your process together. You will end up with a script like the one below:

Set-ADUser -Identity:"CN=Mike,OU=Users,OU=ViaMonstra,DC=corp,DC=viamonstra,DC=com" -LogonWorkstations:"No-PC-for-You" -Replace:@{"logonHours"="0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0","0"}
Add-ADPrincipalGroupMembership -Identity:"CN=Mike,OU=Users,OU=ViaMonstra,DC=corp,DC=viamonstra,DC=com" -MemberOf:"CN=Archived Users,OU=Security Groups,OU=ViaMonstra,DC=corp,DC=viamonstra,DC=com"
Set-ADObject -Identity:"CN=Mike,OU=Users,OU=ViaMonstra,DC=corp,DC=viamonstra,DC=com" -Replace:@{'primaryGroupID'="2103"}
Remove-ADPrincipalGroupMembership -Confirm:$false -Identity:"CN=Mike,OU=Users,OU=ViaMonstra,DC=corp,DC=viamonstra,DC=com" -MemberOf:"CN=Domain Users,CN=Users,DC=corp,DC=viamonstra,DC=com"
Set-ADAccountExpiration -DateTime:"12/29/2018 00:00:00" -Identity:"CN=Mike,OU=Users,OU=ViaMonstra,DC=corp,DC=viamonstra,DC=com"

Not only do we have a starting point for a User Management script, but we are also getting a solid introduction to PowerShell and how it works. Taking this a step further, let’s look at how to replace the -Identity parameter with a variable. To accomplish this, I created two variables for the User Account, $Account and $AccountDetails. $Account asks for the user name. $AccountDetails uses Get-AdUser to gather details of the Account, specifically DistinguishedName.

$Account = Read-Host -Prompt 'Input the user name'
$AccountDetails = Get-ADUser $Account

At this point, we can now replace

-Identity:"CN=Mike,OU=Users,OU=ViaMonstra,DC=corp,DC=viamonstra,DC=com"

With

-Identity:$AccountDetails.DistinguishedName 

This small addition greatly increases the usefulness of this script. Since Distinguished Name contains the full path, I do not need to worry about typos in OU names. Also, I can hand this script off to help desk staff to archive accounts without worrying that a step was missed. Below is the full script that I currently use when archiving accounts. You will notice that I added several more variables, $DenyHours, $ArchivedUsersGroup, and $DisableOU. I used Richard Siddaway’s blog post, https://richardspowershellblog.wordpress.com/2012/01/26/setting-a-users-logon-hours/ to declare $DenyHours. $ArchivedUsers and $DisabledOU are variables that I declared for my group and OU for disabled accounts.

#Declare Logon Hours
[byte[]]$DenyHours = @(0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0)
#Declare OUs
$DisableOU = "OU=- Disabled Accounts,OU=Users,DC=ViaMonstra,DC=org"
#Declare Groups
$ArchivedUsersGroup = "CN=Archived Users,OU=Groups,DC=ViaMonstra,DC=org"
# Input Account and get Account details
$Account = Read-Host -Prompt 'Input the user name'
$AccountDetails = Get-ADUser $Account
#Disable Account
Disable-ADAccount -Identity:$AccountDetails.DistinguishedName
# Set Logon Restrictions
Set-ADUser -Identity:$AccountDetails.DistinguishedName -LogonWorkstations:"No-PC-for-You" -Replace:@{logonHours=$DenyHours
# Add Archive Flag for Email Autoreply Rules
Set-ADUser -Identity:$AccountDetails.DistinguishedName -Office:"Archive"
# Add Account to 'Archived Users' group and Set as primary
Add-ADGroupMember -Identity:$ArchivedUsersGroup -Members:$AccountDetails
Set-ADObject -Identity:$AccountDetails -Replace:@{'primaryGroupID'="ChangeToYourGroupID"}
# Set Description to Disabled Date
Set-ADUser $AccountDetails -Description "Account Disabled on $(Get-Date -format 'd')"
# Remove From all the Groups
Get-ADGroup -Filter {name -notlike "*Archived Users*"}  | Remove-ADGroupMember -Members $AccountDetails.samaccountname -Confirm:$False 
# Move Account to Disabled Users OU
Move-ADObject -Identity:$AccountDetails.DistinguishedName -TargetPath:$DisableOU

To recap, I defined a procedure to archive accounts. Using ADAC, I captured the PowerShell commands for each step. Finally, I replaced static information such as, Account Name, OU’s, and Groups with variables. I hope that this gives you some ideas for managing user accounts with PowerShell in your environment.

Update – I added a screenshot of ADAC, changed the disable account to the cleaner “Disable-ADAccount” and fixed a couple of typos.

Keeping the SCCM Cache Clean with DCM

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SCCM Cache Clean

In environments with frequent software distributions the SCCM cache folder can quickly take up large amounts of disk space.  This really becomes problematic on older systems or virtual machines with limited amounts of disk space.  Our support team found themselves having to constantly track down systems with low disk space and clean the cache.  I came up with this DCM configuration item to automatically detect and cleanup content in the cache which is older than the given number of days.  The detection and cleanup scripts both write to their own application event logs so you can see a history of cleanup activities.

Creating the CI

Create a new configuration item and select Windows Desktops and Servers as the type of configuration item.

Choose the appropriate operating systems.  In my case I selected all operating systems as I wanted the cache to be cleaned across the board.

Create a new setting and set it’s type to script and data type to string.

Add a discovery script for detecting old items in the cache folder.  Customize the number of days as you see fit.  You can also modify the event log source if desired.

$MinDays = 30

New-EventLog -LogName SCCM_Cleanup -Source "DCM" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
Write-EventLog -LogName SCCM_Cleanup -Source "DCM" -EntryType Information -EventId 1000 -Message "Detection starting for Cleanup CCMCACHE" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

$UIResourceMgr = New-Object -ComObject UIResource.UIResourceMgr
$Cache = $UIResourceMgr.GetCacheInfo()
$count = ($Cache.GetCacheElements() | where-object {[datetime]$_.LastReferenceTime -lt (get-date).adddays(-$mindays)} | Measure-object).Count

Write-EventLog -LogName SCCM_Cleanup -Source "DCM" -EntryType Information -EventId 1003 -Message "Total obsolete items found: $count" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
Write-EventLog -LogName SCCM_Cleanup -Source "DCM" -EntryType Information -EventId 1001 -Message "Detection ending for Cleanup CCMCACHE" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

$count

Next, define a remediation script.  Once again you can customize the number of days and event log name.  The number of days should match your detection script.

$MinDays = 30

New-EventLog -LogName SCCM_Cleanup -Source "DCM" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
Write-EventLog -LogName SCCM_Cleanup -Source "DCM" -EntryType Information -EventId 1010 -Message "Remediation starting for Cleanup CCMCACHE" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

$UIResourceMgr = New-Object -ComObject UIResource.UIResourceMgr
$Cache = $UIResourceMgr.GetCacheInfo()
$Cache.GetCacheElements() | where-object {[datetime]$_.LastReferenceTime -lt (get-date).adddays(-$mindays)} | foreach { $Cache.DeleteCacheElement($_.CacheElementID) }

Write-EventLog -LogName SCCM_Cleanup -Source "DCM" -EntryType Information -EventId 1011 -Message "Remediation ending for Cleanup CCMCACHE" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

The final step is to create your compliance rule.  Set the value to check against to 0 and check the run remediation script checkbox.

Now after you test the new CI assign it to the appropriate baseline(s) for your environment.  Now you can forget about having to manually cleanup the SCCM cache folder ever again.

 

ALSO CHECK : Have you heard about Get-WQLObject?

Have you heard about Get-WQLObject?

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Have you heard about Get- WQL Object?


WQL is a part of SCCM administration whether you like it or not. Over time you may become quite savvy with writing up WQL queries and appreciate that it mimics SQL in just enough of a way to allow some fancy collections. 

You can also use the ‘Query’ section under monitoring to view, develop, and run these WQL queries outside of collection evaluation. This can be useful for getting some quick data in a one-off fashion at a point in time. Commonly I will need to interact with this data though such as when I’m remediating some issues via a script. As much fun as copy pasting to excel and importing a CSV is… I wrote a script instead! 


The Meat:


What I’m doing at it’s core is a WMI query. That is the real meat here. So… here’s a basic function that takes in a WQL query and gives you the raw output. 


$Query = @"
select distinct s.Name,
sw.ProductName,
sw.ProductVersion,
cbs.CNIsOnline,
os.Caption
from  SMS_R_System s
inner join SMS_G_System_INSTALLED_SOFTWARE sw on sw.ResourceID = s.ResourceId
inner join SMS_CollectionMemberClientBaselineStatus cbs ON cbs.ResourceID = s.ResourceId
inner join SMS_G_System_Operating_System os ON os.ResourceID = s.ResourceID
where sw.ProductName like "%7-Zip%"
and sw.ProductVersion NOT IN ("18.05.00.0","18.05")
order by sw.ProductVersion
"@

function Get-WQLObject {
    param(
        # WQL formatted query to perform
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]$Query,
        # SMS Provider to query against
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]$SMSProvider
    )
    $SiteCode = (Get-WmiObject -Namespace "root\sms" -ClassName "__Namespace" -ComputerName $SMSProvider).Name.Substring(5, 3)
    $Namespace = [string]::Format("root\sms\site_{0}", $SiteCode)
    Get-WmiObject -ComputerName $SMSProvider -Namespace $Namespace -Query $Query
}

Get-WQLObject -SMSProvider 'SCCM.CONTOSO.COM' -Query $Query

This almost shouldn’t even be a function, but it is because I put ‘function’ in front of it with a name and a {.

So, if you run this you will get some data back, though it is a bit ugly honestly. 

Ugly

But hey, this is PowerShell. It is object oriented. I can dig into this object. I can expand cbs (Founders Canadian Breakfast Stout anyone?) and then I can expand CNIsOnline and I’ll get the value I truly care about. Same for sw, and then ProductName, and ProductVersion. But that sounds tedious.


The Potatoes:


Right, so I technically have what I need. But I want more! Fatten things up a bit ya know? Couple scoops of potatoes. Disclaimer: This IS potatoes, it does slow things down a bit. Though to be fair, any large WQL query via PowerShell is going to be slow no matter what.


function Get-WQLObject {
    param(
        # WQL formatted query to perform
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]$Query,
        # SMS Provider to query against
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]$SMSProvider,
        # Optional PSCredential 
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false)]
        [pscredential]$Credential
    )
    Begin {
        if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Credential')) {
            $AddedDefaultParam = $true
            $PSDefaultParameterValues.Add("Get-WmiObject:Credential", $Credential)
        }
        $SiteCode = (Get-WmiObject -Namespace "root\sms" -ClassName "__Namespace" -ComputerName $SMSProvider).Name.Substring(5, 3)
        $Namespace = [string]::Format("root\sms\site_{0}", $SiteCode)
    }
    Process {
        $RawResults = Get-WmiObject -ComputerName $SMSProvider -Namespace $Namespace -Query $Query
        $PropertySelectors = $RawResults | Get-Member -MemberType Property | Where-Object { -not $_.Name.StartsWith('__') } | Select-Object -ExpandProperty name | ForEach-Object {
            $Class = $_
            $Properties = $RawResults.$Class | Get-Member -MemberType Property | Where-Object { -not $_.Name.StartsWith('__') } | Select-Object -ExpandProperty name
            foreach ($Property in $Properties) {
                [string]::Format("@{{Label='{1}.{0}';Expression = {{`$_.{1}.{0}}}}}", $Property, $Class)
            }
        }
    }
    end {
        if ($AddedDefaultParam) {
            $PSDefaultParameterValues.Remove("Get-WmiObject:Credential")
        }
        $PropertySelector = [scriptblock]::Create($($PropertySelectors -join ','))
        $RawResults | Select-Object -Property $(. $PropertySelector)
    }
}

Starting to look a lot more like a function! You know it should be a function when it starts doing weird things that you don’t feel like typing out over and over. 


$PropertySelectors = $RawResults | Get-Member -MemberType Property | Where-Object { -not $_.Name.StartsWith('__') } | Select-Object -ExpandProperty name | ForEach-Object {
    $Class = $_
    $Properties = $RawResults.$Class | Get-Member -MemberType Property | Where-Object { -not $_.Name.StartsWith('__') } | Select-Object -ExpandProperty name
    foreach ($Property in $Properties) {
        [string]::Format("@{{Label='{1}.{0}';Expression = {{`$_.{1}.{0}}}}}", $Property, $Class)
    }
}

Remember how I said we could ‘dig into’ the objects? This snippet above is generating a string (that we will join and turn into a scriptblock) to do just that. We are going to dynamically find our classes and properties by leveraging Get-Member and filtering out system properties. Those system properties don’t interest me in this context so I’m filtering them out with “Where-Object { -not $_.Name.StartsWith(‘__’) }” leaving me with the properties I care about.

Couple notes:

  •  I like [string]::Format. It is actually REALLY fast in terms of CPU time, and for me personally it makes things more ‘manageable.’ For some people it is just confusing. You can simply do $Potatoes = “$Var1″+’bacon’+”$Var2” or many other methods if you prefer. ($Var1 = ‘Cheese’ by the way)
  • In our generated string I am escaping $_ by writing out `$_. This is so that we don’t actually expand out $_ right now. I want to treat it is a string to be used later.

The output, based on the 7-Zip software query above, can be seen below and should look familiar if you’ve ever done some custom Select-Object with calculated properties.


@{Label='cbs.CNIsOnline';Expression = {$_.cbs.CNIsOnline}},
@{Label='os.Caption';Expression ={ $_.os.Caption}},
@{Label='s.Name';Expression = {$_.s.Name}},
@{Label='sw.ProductName';Expression ={$_.sw.ProductName}},
@{Label='sw.ProductVersion';Expression = {$_.sw.ProductVersion}}

To leverage this code in the way I am hoping to though, it cannot just be a string. It has to be a scriptblock that can be dot-sourced. Let’s do that!


 $PropertySelector = [scriptblock]::Create($($PropertySelectors -join ','))

Because we are going to be wanting to expand out from $_ in the context of $RawResults | Select-Object… we need to execute the scriptblock. Simply passing $PropertySelector won’t work, so instead we will dot-source the scriptblock.


$RawResults | Select-Object -Property $(. $PropertySelector)

This will ‘execute’ our $PropertySelector statement that we generated. So {$_.s.Name} will actually be {$<instance of $RawResults that we are piping>.s.Name} which is what we want!

And of course the output from the function now looks MUCH nicer.

Mmmm Potatoes!

The Gravy!


I know, I know. This has all been really dry. Enter… the gravy!

WQL… you’ve got that down right? You know a good 2-300 WMI Classes under the root\sms\site_<sitecode> namespace including their properties right? Yeah, me too. 

What if we could leverage all those queries you have under you ‘Queries’ node in monitoring?

$Gravy = ‘DynamicParam’


function Get-WQLObject {
    param(
        # WQL formatted query to perform
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ParameterSetName = 'CustomQuery')]
        [string]
        $Query,
        # SMS Provider to query against
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]
        $SMSProvider,
        # Optional PSCredential (unfortunately I can't figure out how to use this cred in the DynamicParam WMI queries without providing info outside the function)
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $false, ParameterSetName = 'CustomQuery')]
        [pscredential]
        $Credential
    )
    DynamicParam {
        if (($SMSProvider = $PSBoundParameters['SMSProvider'])) {
            $ParameterName = 'SCCMQuery'
            $RuntimeParameterDictionary = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameterDictionary
            $AttributeCollection = New-Object System.Collections.ObjectModel.Collection[System.Attribute]
            $ParameterAttribute = New-Object System.Management.Automation.ParameterAttribute
            $ParameterAttribute.Mandatory = $true
            $ParameterAttribute.ParameterSetName = 'ExistingQuery'
            $ParameterAttribute.HelpMessage = 'Specify the name of a query that already exists in your ConfigMgr environment'
            $AttributeCollection.Add($ParameterAttribute)
            $SiteCode = (Get-WmiObject -Namespace "root\sms" -ClassName "__Namespace" -ComputerName $SMSProvider).Name.Substring(5, 3)
            $Namespace = [string]::Format("root\sms\site_{0}", $SiteCode)
            $arrSet = Get-WmiObject -ComputerName $SMSProvider -Namespace $Namespace -Query "SELECT Name FROM SMS_Query WHERE Expression not like '%##PRM:%'" | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Name
            $ValidateSetAttribute = New-Object System.Management.Automation.ValidateSetAttribute($arrSet)
            $AttributeCollection.Add($ValidateSetAttribute)
            $RuntimeParameter = New-Object System.Management.Automation.RuntimeDefinedParameter($ParameterName, [string], $AttributeCollection)
            $RuntimeParameterDictionary.Add($ParameterName, $RuntimeParameter)
            return $RuntimeParameterDictionary
        }
    }
    Begin {
        $SCCMQuery = $PsBoundParameters[$ParameterName]
        if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Credential') -and -not $PSDefaultParameterValues.ContainsKey("Get-WmiObject:Credential")) {
            $AddedDefaultParam = $true
            $PSDefaultParameterValues.Add("Get-WmiObject:Credential", $Credential)
        }
        $SiteCode = (Get-WmiObject -Namespace "root\sms" -ClassName "__Namespace" -ComputerName $SMSProvider).Name.Substring(5, 3)
        $Namespace = [string]::Format("root\sms\site_{0}", $SiteCode)
        if ($PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ExistingQuery') {
            $Query = Get-WmiObject -ComputerName $SMSProvider -Namespace $Namespace -Query "SELECT Expression FROM SMS_Query WHERE Name ='$SCCMQuery'" | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Expression
        }
    }
    Process {
        $RawResults = Get-WmiObject -ComputerName $SMSProvider -Namespace $Namespace -Query $Query
        $PropertySelectors = $RawResults | Get-Member -MemberType Property | Where-Object { -not $_.Name.StartsWith('__') } | Select-Object -ExpandProperty name | ForEach-Object {
            $Class = $_
            $Properties = $RawResults.$Class | Get-Member -MemberType Property | Where-Object { -not $_.Name.StartsWith('__') } | Select-Object -ExpandProperty name
            foreach ($Property in $Properties) {
                [string]::Format("@{{Label='{1}.{0}';Expression = {{`$_.{1}.{0}}}}}", $Property, $Class)
            }
        }
    }
    end {
        if ($AddedDefaultParam) {
            $PSDefaultParameterValues.Remove("Get-WmiObject:Credential")
        }
        $PropertySelector = [scriptblock]::Create($($PropertySelectors -join ','))
        $RawResults | Select-Object -Property $(. $PropertySelector)
    }
}

There we go! Now we are nice and bloated!

What have I done!!!

  • Added ParameterSets
  • Added DynamicParam
  • Justified creating a function by making this thing nice and ugly

We now have two ParameterSets, one of which is less obvious because it is introduced in the ‘DynamicParam’ block. 


$ParameterAttribute.ParameterSetName = 'ExistingQuery'

And then we do a bit of magic which allows us to tab-complete our existing Queries that you have in SCCM right now. (Note: I’m excluding those that require parameters because… yeah I don’t feel like writing in that logic right now)


$arrSet = Get-WmiObject -ComputerName $SMSProvider -Namespace $Namespace -Query "SELECT Name FROM SMS_Query WHERE Expression not like '%##PRM:%'" | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Name

So what does this do for me? 

Tab completion!

You now have tab completion based on the name of the queries in SCCM. You can execute all of your pre-existing queries, and even find them with tab-completion or by using ctrl+space.

Ohhh buddy!

I did mention this above, but I will say it again. A slow query is still a slow query, and our calculated properties isn’t going to make it faster. This function adds some overhead to your query as we are also piping it to a select-object after the fact. BUT it is pretty cool right? Get those gears turning on DynamicParams!

Some good-to-mentions about the function:

  • To use the -SCCMQuery parameter you need to supply -SMSProvider first. if (($SMSProvider = $PSBoundParameters[‘SMSProvider’]))
  • Unfortunately, no -Credential param when you are using -SCCMQuery because I wasn’t able to figure out how to use the credentials from the parameter inside the DynamicParam which would be needed to get our list of expressions. Let me know if you figure it out!
  • It is on GitHub
  • I might have made some gross oversights and overcomplicated this

 

@CodyMathis123

https://sccmf12twice.com/author/cmathis/